List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1977 – Graphical Waterfall


graphical waterfall is a display where images are formed by water droplets falling from computer-controlled nozzles. It was invented in 1977 by Stephen Pevnick, an American artist. Graphical waterfalls can be used with regular lighting (as on the left video) or with a stroboscope (as on the right video), depending on the desired effect. It is unclear whether such devices have been already used to display data.


  1. Pevnick Design (2018), Invention of the Graphical Waterfall®.
  2. Wikipedia, Stephen Pevnick.

Added by: Pierre Dragicevic. Category: Enabling technology  Tags: display, water