Bronze sculpture showing the phases of the flight of birds, created by French scientist Étienne-Jules Marey in 1887 based on photographs. Étienne-Jules Marey was a pioneer in the study of dynamic phenomena and invented a variety of scientific and medical instruments, photography techniques, and temporal visualization methods. A wealth of information is available about him online.
Also see our entry on Peter Jansen's movement sculptures, inspired from his work.
- Russel Naughton (2007) Aviation and Aeromodeling History – Étienne-Jules Marey (1830 – 1904).
- Wikipedia article on Etienne-Jules Marey.
- Marey (1890) Psychologie du mouvement – Le vol des oiseaux.
- Left image from www.histoire-image.org. Right image from Russell Naughton.