List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1880 – Winogradsky Columns


The Winogradsky column, invented by Sergei Winogradsky, consists in a transparent cylinder for analyzing microbial life by observing how the metabolism of micro-organisms evolve over time in stratified layers. By producing a small closed ecosystem, the column enables observing how bacteria can survive by providing a temporal and spatial visualization of layers such as in ecology, microbiology.


  1. The Microbiome of Your Gut
  2. Winogradsky Column—Microbial Evolution in a Bottle
  3. S. Kuznetsov, W. Harrigan-Anderson, H. Faste, S.E. Hudson, E. Paulos, Community engagements with living sensing systems, Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition C&C'2013, ACM Press, pp. 213-222.

Added by: Jean Vanderdonckt. Category: Uncertain  Tags: 3D, biology, cylinder, indexical, layers, science