List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1968 – Charles Csuri's Numeric Milling Sculpture

Charles Csuri's Numeric Milling Sculpture


Csuri's wooden sculpture Numeric Milling is one of the few early computer sculptures created with a computer-driven milling machine... This work made use of the Bessel function to generate the surface. The computer program then generated a punched tape to represent the coordinate data. Included were instructions to a 3-axis, continuous path, numerically controlled milling machine.


  1. Csuri Project: Plotter Drawing, 1966 - 1970: Numeric Milling
  2. Photo of Numeric Milling Sculpture courtesy of Charles Csuri