List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1947 – Dorothy Hodgkin's Electron Density Contours

Nobel prize winning crystallographer Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin created another physical visualization in the mid 1940's, showing part of the structure of penicillin. An original of this artifact is in the Oxford Museum of the History of Science. This technique recently inspired artist Angela Palmer for her glass portraits.


  1. Lachlan Michael and David Cranswicka (2008) Busting out of crystallography's Sisyphean prison: from pencil and paper to structure solving at the press of a button: past, present and future of crystallographic software development, maintenance and distribution.
  2. Oxford Museum of the History of Science. Model of the Structure of Penicillin, by Dorothy Hodgkin, Oxford, c. 1945.

Added by: Pierre Dragicevic, sent by: Jean-Baptiste Labrune. Category: Passive physical visualization  Tags: chemistry, crystallography, penicillin, science