List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

2000 – Graph Boards


Mathematics and geometry are often taught to blind students using a cork board with raised grid lines, push pins and rubber bands. The right image shows a teacher explaining the use of the Graphic Aid for Mathematics, a physical kit sold by the American Printing House for the Blind.

Date of invention unknown.


  1. Suzan Osterhaus (2001) Teaching Math to Visually Impaired Students.
  2. Youtube video series explaining the traditional cork board: APH Graph Board with Susan Osterhaus.
  3. McGookin et al. (2010) Clutching at Straws: Using Tangible Interaction to Provide Non-Visual Access to Graphs.

Added by: Pierre Dragicevic. Category: Enabling technology  Tags: blind, pin board