List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1968 – Jacques Bertin’s Reorderable Matrices


A device made by French cartographer Jacques Bertin for exploring tabular data, developed in the mid 1960s.

More photos on the aviz website, in the flickr photo set by Jean-Baptiste Labrune, and on Page 78 of Nathalie Henry's PhD dissertation. Also see this old educational video, Jean-Daniel Fekete's interview on Jacques Bertin by Enrico Bertini, our interview by Data Stories where we demo a simplified version of Bertin's matrix made by Innar Liiv, and the Web page of Bertifier.


  1. Jacques Bertin (1969) Graphique et mathématique : généralisation du traitement graphique de l'information.
  2. Jacques Bertin (1977) La graphique et le traitement graphique de l'information.
  3. Serge Bonnin (1998) Le développement de la graphique de 1967 à 1997.
  4. Gilles Palsky (2003) L'esprit des cartes, pp. 99-100.
  5. The left photo was taken during Jacques Bertin's 2005 interview by Jean-Daniel Fekete, Nathalie Henry and Jean-Baptiste Labrune.
  6. The right photo is from Bertin's book "la Graphique et le traitement graphique de l'information", captured from these slides by Torsten Möller.

Added by Pierre Dragicevic on February 28, 2012. Category: Passive physical visualization Tags: , ,