List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

2013 – Punchcard Economy: Data Knitting


Punchcard Economy is a machine-knitted tapestry inspired by a 1856 banner advertising the Eight-hour day movement. The layer of visual noise shows today's departure from the eight-hour day philosophy. Working hours were collected from 116 participants, and each hour of work outside normal working hours was encoded as a color-inverted knit. A smaller version was made for the 2014 Data as Culture exhibition.


  1. Sam Meech (2013) Punchcard Economy.
  2. Explanation of the data encoding in this video (starts at 2:45).
  3. Left image from, right image from

Added by Pierre Dragicevic on January 16, 2015, sent by Adrian McEwen. Category: Passive physical visualization Tags: , , , ,