Last modified on 30 May 2017, at 13:51


Pin map of 46 out of the 56 people listed below.

This is a list of people studying or interested in studying data physicalization, and who are open to starting collaborations, taking students, finding a position, or simply connecting and exchanging ideas on the topic. People marked with an * are contributors to this wiki.

If you would like to be added to this list, please fill this form.

Jason2.jpg Jason Alexander
Lecturer, Lancaster University, UK.
Jason is a Lecturer in Human-Computer Interaction and has a background in hardware prototyping and empirical user evaluation. He is interested in the application of shape-changing displays to data physicalization and understanding how users will interact with such artefacts.
Selim3.jpg Selim Balcısoy
Lab Director - Faculty Member, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
The large-scale use of office tools and statistical analysis applications indicates that they have sufficed well for some of the everyday tasks in our work cycles such as analysis, presentation, reporting, and decision-making. Nevertheless, they were designed in an era when business data was not big and complex enough. The ever growing avalanche of the data that we collect for our businesses compels us to find new means of understanding, sharing, and reporting the underlying ideas, and of making decisions for the future.
Stephen2.jpg Stephen Barrass
Associate Professor, University of Canberra, Australia.
Stephen Barrass studies Acoustic Data Sonification. An Acoustic Sonification is an object that has been both physically and acoustically shaped by a data set specifically to produce sounds that may provide information about the dataset. For example the Hypertension Singing Bowl is a Tibetan singing bowl shaped by a year of blood pressure readings. The HRTF bells were shaped from Head Related Transfer Functions of the left and right ear pinnae. Stephen's Acoustic Sonifications will be exhibited at the Currents New Media Festival in Santa Fe in June.
Evandro.jpg Evandro Damião Barbosa
Creative Data, Brazil.
Evandro Damião is a data science enthusiast and data visualization expert. Focused on bring life to data not only with Dataviz is positioning as a pioneer in Dataphys in Brazil.
Pierre.jpg Pierre Dragicevic*
Permanent Research Scientist, Inria, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Together with Yvonne Jansen, Pierre Dragicevic has been promoting data physicalization as a research area and curating a list of physical visualizations. He is interested in how manipulable representations of data can augment human cognition. He is also interested in tracing back the origins of data visualization by examining physical artefacts made throughout history, and in imagining how future humans will interact with data through programmable matter.
Jose.jpg Jose Duarte
Designer, Colombia.
Jose Duarte is a Colombian designer, magister in communication and an international speaker about the data visualization field. Unlike most of the infographics we see today, his data visualizations aren't high-quality computer-aided; they're handmade using simple items like balloons, tape and ruber balls. Using ordinary materials he has experimented with various visualization techniques from area charts to bubble graphs and ven diagrams in diverse scenarios as business, art, street interventions and even astronomy. Now, he is exploring simple ways to visualize information quickly and easily and his work – particularly the handmade visualization toolkit and the #easydataclip project – has inspired and encouraged people to approximate to data visualization for the very first time.
Bruno.jpg Bruno Dumas
Associate professor, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium.
Bruno Dumas works in multimodal interaction and information visualisation. As such, he is interested in the interaction aspect with visualisations, especially when using haptic and tangible interfaces. This naturally led him to have a keen interest on data physicalisation and especially how to interact with them.
Leanne2.jpg Leanne Elias
Associate Professor, Fine Arts, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.
I am interested in how art and design can help people understand data. At our experimental lab we work with students and agricultural scientists to explore various physical manifestations of data, and then present the work to a larger public through exhibitions. We strive to combine traditional art-making materials and processes with new ones, and have worked with everything from interactive bar charts to weaving, from meticulously hand-drawn graphs to 3D printed data physicalizations, from crocheted data to electro-acoustic sound compositions.
Matthew2.jpg Matthew Epler
Creative Technologist, Deep Local, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
I believe that tangible experiences are more impactful and that while not everyone can access a physical object, the knowledge of its existence in the physical realm gives it more weight.
John.jpg John Fass
Visiting Lecturer, Information Experience Design, Royal College of Art, London, UK.
My research involves asking participants to represent the phenomena of digital experiences including web browsing, social media and image messaging in visual and physical form. I see this as a way to reveal the opaque and hidden nature of inner experience but also to democratise access to understanding. Acting through physical materials offers a way for participants to develop analytical ability and gain insight into the algorithmic processes guiding digital behaviour.
Denton2.jpg Denton Fredrickson
Assistant Professor - Sculpture and Media Art, Art Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.
Denton Fredrickson’s artwork invites experiential and contemplative interactions with sound, objects, and architectural space. The seductive lure of both old and new wonders, fantastic inventions, and absurd theories are familiar territories for Fredrickson. He investigates their histories and representations in popular culture through media archaeology, experimental data visualization, and the practice of making. His recent interest in the intermingling of traditional, material-based processes with electronics and digital fabrication has led him to explore how speculative fiction can become awkwardly nestled within the psychology of the everyday.
Pau2.jpg Pau Garcia
Researcher and visual designer, leader of the studio Domestic Data Streamers, Barcelona, Spain.
Data changes the way we see our world. We can learn more from ourselves and nature surrounding us than ever before in human history. For this reason, we need new tools to reach and translate this information into a universal language. Domestic Data Streamers is a team of developers from Barcelona that have taken on the challenge of transforming raw data into interactive systems and experiences. With a background in new media and interaction design they play in the boundaries of arts, science and sociology to make new data languages. The team was created in October 2013 and since then has been working doing installations for several national and international museums and cultural institutions including the Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, Smart City Expo or Academy of Science of California.
Ben.jpg Benjamin Gaulon
Program Director MFA Design+Technology Parsons Paris, France.
As program director of a BFA Art, Media & Tech and a MFA Desing + Tech this is an amazing ressource for students and faculty.
Kellyann.jpg Kellyann Geurts
PhD candidate, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

My art-based research project tests a consumer mobile EEG device to capture brainwave data in response users’ recall of emotional or physical experiences. The device monitors and records mental states such as attention, engagement, arousal, stress and relaxation. These states are interpreted via specialised computer software and printed into uniquely shaped three-dimensional abstract forms, each representing particular “type” of thought. The named 3D “thoughtforms” are tagged and catalogued. With a data set of over 200 thoughtforms, identifiable patterns and “shapes of thought” have emerged.

Pauline.jpg Pauline Gourlet
PhD student, Université Paris 8 - EnsadLab, Paris, France.
My research focuses on the design of reflective tools for educational environments, seeking to engage learners in reflective processes through non‐verbal channels.
Bathsheba.jpg Bathsheba Grossman
Sculptor and designer, owner of, Somerville, MA, USA.
At, Bathsheba Grossman uses subsurface laser etching to create images inside glass blocks. It's a visually striking and accessible way to present complex 3D models. Proteins and small molecules are a specialty, but all kinds of data are possible: we've created thousands of models from atomic orbitals to astronomical surveys.
Ian2.jpg Ian Gwilt
Professor Visual Communication Design, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
For many people outside the scientific community statistical information and graphs remain abstract and unintelligible. My creative practice-based research investigates how we might begin to interpret technical/digital information through the creation of material-based physical objects, with the intention of bringing better understanding to scientific data for a variety of audiences.
JohnH2.jpg John Hardy
Company Directory & Researcher at H&E Inventions LTD, Manchester, UK.
Developing systems and support tools that allow technical and non-technical designers to create physical representations of data. Interested in how new technologies can render data back into the physical spaces it was captured in, in order to support better insight identification and decision making processes.
Jeff.jpg Jeff Hemsley
Assistant Professor in Syracuse University, USA.
Data is ubiquitous. Understanding is not. Data exploration is best facilitated by keeping an open mind and trying different representations of the data. Unlike 2D plots, 3D virtual spaces, and data sonification, physical representation of data are unique in their ability to promote interactivity with data, and thus communicate the meaning within the data. You can see more of my work here.
Trevor.jpg Trevor Hogan
Lecturer, Crawford College of Art and Design, CIT, Ireland. PhD candidate, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany.
Trevor is a lecturer in interactive digital media and an external PhD candidate at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany. The aim of his research is to describe and better understand how embodiment influences and augments an audience’s experience of data representations. He explores, through creative practice, whether embodying data in alternative modalities contributes to an audience's capacity to construct meaning and empathize with the data source. Trevors work is strongly interdisciplinary and may be situated in the field of interactive design, at the intersection of tangible computing, human-computer interaction, information science and psychology. The current focus of his work involves exploring new approaches to design and evaluation that help us to describe how people respond when they touch, feel, hear, hold, or even possess data.
Kasper.jpg Kasper Hornbæk
Professor at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
I am interested in shape-changing interfaces and how they should affect our understanding of concepts such as affordance, encoding, and interaction. I have been exploring this in the GHOST project. Identifying promising application areas for shape-change I also find important; data physicalization seems to be one such area. Many of the questions that concerns shape-change appear to apply also to data physicalization.
Hornecker.jpg Eva Hornecker
Professor of HCI, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany.
I have a general interest in tangible interfaces, user experience and social interactions. Regarding data physicalisation, I am interested in the subjective user experience of data physicalisation and in the social interaction these might engender and support, i.e. how these might be shareable in different ways than traditional visual representations. I work with Trevor Hogan, supervising his PhD project which focuses on the phenomenological user experience of different modalities for data representations.
Elise2.jpg Elise van den Hoven
Associate professor in the School of Design at UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Elise van den Hoven has a background in interaction design and HCI and her research spans aspects of human-computer interaction, design and psychology. More specifically her expertise lies in the field of tangible interaction (the use of physical objects with embedded electronics which can respond to people's actions) and in the application area of human remembering activities. She leads the international research program Materialising Memories, which aims to use design for improved reliving of personal memories. (For more information, see:
Samuel2.jpg Samuel Huron
Post doctorate researcher at University of Calgary, Canada and Lead Designer at IRI Centre Pompidou, Paris, France.
Samuel Huron is actively working on visual representation design for non infovis expert people. He is interested in understanding the different paradigm in which human design and externalize visual representation of abstract information. To understand these phenomenon he observe how non expert people construct visual representations of data using various media, i.e., how people create, manipulate and communicate abstract information in graphical and tangible ways.
Petra2.jpg Petra Isenberg
Permanent Research Scientist, Inria, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
I am interested in finding out how physical visualizations can aid groups in making sense of data. This includes studying how groups think with physical visualizations but also how they can interact, share, and disseminate physical data.
Hiroshi.jpg Hiroshi Ishii
Jerome B. Wiesner Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, Associate Director of MIT Media Laboratory, Head of Tangible Media Group, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Beyond Tangible Bits, Towards Radical Atoms. Tangible Bits seeks to realize seamless interfaces between humans, digital information, and the physical environment by giving physical form to digital information, making bits directly manipulable and perceptible. Our goal is to invent new design media for artistic expression as well as for scientific analysis, taking advantage of the richness of human senses and skills – as developed through our lifetime of interaction with the physical world – as well as the computational reflection enabled by real-time sensing and digital feedback. Radical Atoms takes a leap beyond Tangible Bits by assuming a hypothetical generation of materials that can change form and properties dynamically, becoming as reconfigurable as pixels on a screen. Radical Atoms is the future material that can transform its’ shape, conform to constraints, and inform the users of their affordances. Radical Atoms is a vision for the future of human-material interaction, in which all digital information has a physical manifestation so that we can interact directly with it.
Yvonne2.jpg Yvonne Jansen*
CNRS researcher at Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
Yvonne Jansen is one of the curators of the list of physical visualizations and the admin of this wiki. She is interested in the long tradition of physical data representations and the many ways in which they are used today. Her research focuses on how people engage, perceive, and interact with data physicalizations, and on how to merge the benefits of physicality with the power of computation.
Fariz.png Fariz Junaidi
Communication Designer, Glasgow School of Art, Singapore.
Fariz Junaidi's fascination for information visualisation stems from his personal experience interning at a French press agency as an infographic designer. His project “Data without Numbers” (link to Honours Paper) is an experimental, multi-disciplinary approach to transform day-to-day data collected in train stations into 5 interactive, fashion contraptions. These contraptions invites users to interact with it, allowing users to explore data not only through understanding numbers of data, but experiencing the pragmatic context of it.
Jiyeon.jpg Jiyeon Kang
Data Visualization Designer, MFA Design and Technology at Parsons School of Design, New York, United States.
Jiyeon Kang is an NYC-based designer specialized in data visualization and branding. She focused on visualizing biometric data and researched on Quantified Self movement driven by self-tracking technologies during her master's studies in Design and Technology from Parsons School of Design in New York. Her thesis project Wearable Self is an attempt to create personalized fashion items by visualizing wearable users' activity data such as daily steps. In this age of big data, Wearable Self aims to create a deeper connection between the users and their self data. From visualizing data to digital fabrication technologies like 3d printing and laser cut, she created a data-driven jewelry collection that results in beautiful, translucent, acrylic necklaces and earrings using quantified self data gathered by health applications and wearable trackers. Her project has been showcased and introduced at various exhibitions and the annual Quantified Self conference in Amsterdam.
Howard.jpg Howard Kaplan
Visualization Specialist, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
My research focuses on various academic practices utilizing 3d printing, fabrication and digital modeling technologies. The use of 3d applications, modeling, encoding, preparing, and printing digital models. Interdisciplinary approaches to developing 3d print ready models with added information in the form of accurate tactile visualizations. As an example one particular area of interest is in using 3d printing technology as an educational tool for blind and visually impaired learners.
Abe2.jpg Abe Karnik
Lecturer, Lancaster University, UK.
My main interests are in exploring the motility aspects of data pixels which form data physicalizations. I am also interested in looking at the interaction and perceptual aspects of data physicalizations. Lastly, I wish to explore how data physicalizations can be extended for infographics.
Rohit.jpg Rohit Khot
PhD Scholar, Exertion Games Lab, RMIT University, Australia.
My PhD work explores the engaging qualities of physical representations to support the experience of being physically active. I put forward a new perspective on understanding physical activity through material artifacts that embody personal data to offer new ways of engaging with physical activity. My overall aim is to advocate and build an autotopography of personalised artifacts to create a lasting expression of our lives for the generations to come. I am also interested in using food as a material for data physicalization.
Johan.jpg Johan Kildal
Principal Researcher, Nokia Tech, Espoo, Finland.
Johan Kildal is a Principal Researcher at Nokia TECH in Espoo, Finland. He specializes in multimodal interaction methods that facilitate non-visual interactions, focusing both on accessibility and mobile contexts. This includes audio-haptic interfaces, interaction with deformable interfaces (such as the Nokia Kinetic Device), and modelling the perceived physicality of material for the physical display of information, through techniques such as is 3D-Press and Kooboh.
Scott.jpg Scott Kildall
New Media and Visual Artist, San Francisco, United States.
I am an artist who writes software code that transforms datasets into physical form as sculptures and art installations. The overriding question I am asking is: What does data look like? I frequently collaborate with scientists to look at how we can address concerns of social justice with art + data.
Giles.jpg Giles Lane
Director, Proboscis, London, UK.
Proboscis has been exploring data manifestation since 2012, growing out of previous work bridging the digital and physical since 2000. Our project "Lifestreams" expressed personal biosensor data as 3D-printed shells. We believe that expressing data in this way exposes a greater number of human senses in meaning making that traditional 2D visualisations can affect. By making data physical new kinds of relationships to knowledge can be triggered, informing alternative meanings and interpretations.
Moonhwan.jpg Moon-Hwan Lee
PhD Candidate, KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea.
I am a design-oriented researcher. I investigate how an artifact becomes emotionally durable by using data visualization. The work that I explored was using the concept of patinas as a way of data visualization. As natural patinas enhance emotional and aesthetic qualities of an artifact, it would be possible to use such concept to design digital products and systems.
Mathieu2.jpg Mathieu Le Goc
PhD Student, Inria, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Mathieu Le Goc is currently working on Dynamic Physical Visualisations, and more specifically developping new technologies to augment physicalizations. He is particularly interested in combinations of multiple objects to create physicalizations, like Bertin’s Matrices. Promoting direct manipulations and leveraging human hands capabilities motivate his work, to invent new “beyond desktop” tangible interfaces.
Daniel.jpg Daniel Leithinger
PhD Student at MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Daniel Leithinger builds actuated tangible interfaces and interactive shape displays. His research investigates how to dynamically transform the scale and modality of physical information representation, and how to support remote collaboration through physical telepresence. Together with his colleagues, Daniel has created the shape displays “Relief”, “Recompose”, “Sublimate”, “inFORM” and “Transform”.
Loren3.jpg Loren Madsen
Self-employed artist, Northern California, USA.
I started exploring data sculpture more than twenty years ago with the sculpture “CPI / Cost of Living”, and still continue today with work such as “District 5”. (see interview)
Dougmccune.jpg Doug McCune
Artist and Software Developer in Oakland, CA USA.
Doug McCune is a San Francisco artist who embraces data exploration and map making in an attempt to come to terms with the chaos of urban environments. He experiments heavily with 3D printing and laser cutting to bring digital forms into physical space. He’s a programmer by trade, an amateur cartographer, and a big believer in using data to understand the world. Deviant Cartography (2015) was the first solo show of Doug's physical map artwork. He blogs about both his art and his code at
Kate.jpg Kate McLean
Smellscape Mapper at Canterbury Christ Church University in Canterbury, UK.
My research addresses how the fragmentary and episodic nature of the smellscape might be explored, analysed and represented. It investigates how humanistic smelldata can be shared, how technologies might be used in the investigation and depiction of invisible and ephemeral sensory data - translating humanistic smellscape perceptions into spatio-temporal mappings.
Bettina.jpg Bettina Nissen
PhD Researcher and Designer at Culture Lab, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
Bettina Nissen is a designer and PhD researcher at Culture Lab, Newcastle University. With a background in product design, her work embeds digital fabrication within public data making activities translating digital information into tangible form as personal souvenirs, evocative objects and meaningful artefacts in order to engage new audiences in conversation, reflection and meaning making of data.
Jennifer3.jpg Jennifer Payne
MSc student, University of Calgary, Canada.
Jennifer's past work in the realm of data physicalization includes the creation of several simple physical visualizations (some participatory), and a short study involving extruded bar charts. She is interested in the design of physical representations, exploring physical variables and examining ways in which physical representations differ from representations on-screen.
Everardo.jpg Everardo Reyes
Associate Professor at Université Paris 8, France
I am a member of the Paragraphe Lab at Paris 8 and also a member of the Software Studies Initiative. My research areas combine visual culture, digital media, and programming code as plastic element of media art. My interest on data physicalization regards transforming visual media into objects, for example motion structures.
Jimmy3.jpg Jimmy Hz Ricaut
Interactive explorer, CEO, Tangible Display, Paris, France.
Diving in a sea of data is first an exploration. How to get deeper to retrieve meaningful information and explore new species? What underwater breathing apparatus should we develop for this journey into the depth of knowledge? Tangible interfaces could provide the right vehicles to access abstract datas in an intuitive, physical and spatial manner.
Miguel.jpg Miguel Rodriguez
Researcher and Interaction Designer, ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
Miguel's research focuses on creating novel ways for interacting with biological and environmental sensor data. He is interested in finding new application domains for data physicalizations and experimenting with novel technologies for achieving interactive and dynamic physicalizations.
Bernice.jpg Bernice Rogowitz
Chief Scientist, owner of Visual Perspectives Research and Consulting, Greater New York Area, USA.
Perhaps the most unique characteristic of human perception is our exquisite abilities in visually-guided fine-motor control. Physicalizing data, and allowing it to be manipulated visually, opens new opportunities for data representation, analysis, and artistic creation. My colleague, Paul Borrel, and I have created novel haptic interfaces that allow humans to touch, shape, edit, and explore virtual representations of physical objects. Our work has produced three patents US 8,350,843, US 8,203,529 B2, and US 8487749 B2. Work from the first two patents was described at the HVEI Conference in 2008-- Virtual hand: a 3D tactile interface to virtual environments.
Schneider.jpg Daniel K. Schneider
Associate professor at University of Geneva, Switzerland.
I am interested in creating physical visualizations in educational and learning contexts, e.g. to demonstrate something or as medium for learners to express something. Physical visualization is related to my interest in digital design and fabrication.
Volker2.jpg Volker Schweisfurth
Data artist and owner of MeliesArt, Düsseldorf, Germany.
On global and business topics, MeliesArt transforms conclusions of strategic studies and their data into 3D printed dataSculptures. The focus is not only on making statistics tangible and introduce them an add-on for presentations, but to create "decision support physicalization" by combining suitable risk/chance parameters in the models (as an example see this data sculpture). The website shows many models of mine. Currently, I am studying ways to make models smarter by adding sort of intelligence to them that can be queried. Another issue is better resolution, textures, materials and observing potential new features in the physicalization context (like haptics, pulsation, light emission).
Adrien2.jpg Adrien Segal
Professional Artist.
Taking an interdisciplinary approach that integrates scientific research, data visualization, aesthetic interpretation, and materiality, my work seeks to reconcile scientific conventions of reason and fact with an intuitive sensory experience. My design method begins with extensive research, collection, and analysis of information. I interpret the complexity of natural systems by translating scientific data into lines, shapes, forms, and materials to reveal trends, patterns, processes, and relationships as three-dimensional sculptures.
Simon.jpg Simon Stusak
PhD candidate, University of Munich (LMU), Human-Computer-Interaction Group, Munich, Germany.
Simon is a PhD-Candidate at the University of Munich (LMU) and the working-title of his thesis is "Exploring the potential of Physical Visualizations". He focuses is on static physical visualizations and studies their possible benefits, for example regarding memorability or motivation. In general he is interested the interplay between physical and traditional digital visualizations, their individual strengths and how they could complement one another.
Aurelien.jpg Aurélien Tabard
Assistant Professor, Université Lyon 1, Lyon, France.
I am an Assistant Professor in Computer Science at the University of Lyon, France. I am interested in personal informatics, and investigate how we relate to the wealth of digital traces we leave behind us: how we can control them but also how they can enrich our lives. Ongoing projects include: leveraging traces to develop and improve our digital skills by reflecting on past experiences, enabling users to better understand the traces they produce and developing tools to better control how traces are used. Physical representations of traces are a great way let people explore their past activity in an intimate manner.
Ewa.jpg Ewa Tuteja
Data artist, Berlin, Germany.
I deal with data visualisation in different forms: static/ graphical, interactive and physical. But my deepest passion lies in hand-crafted objects. Above all I enjoy the process of gradual physical creation the most. My work is, in general, about using data to uncover patterns. More specifically it's about enabling understanding of a subject matter or a phenomenon through mediums that are engaging, e.g. because they are physically tangible or simply beautiful. It's about translating data into form. It's about bringing something abstract forth into "the real world".
Andrew.jpg Andrew Vande Moere
Associate Professor, KU Leuven, Belgium.
Andrew is interested in exploring alternative ways of representing data to lay people, including data physicalizations and other non-visual renditions of data. In his academic research, he has already investigated distinct design approaches of how data can be meaningfully encoded as physical artifacts, and proposed the concept of ‘embodiment' to capture the metaphorical power of communicating data-supported meaning in the physical realm. In his current work, he investigates how (interactive) data physicalizations can be deployed in urban and public contexts to engage citizens in information-centric discussions. On his blog 'Information Aesthetics' (, he has curated various projects that demonstrate the power of data physicalization.
Jean.jpg Jean Vanderdonckt
Full Professor, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
I am interested in physicality as a quality property of a user interface to deform itself depending on imposing or relaxing constraints on it. These constraints could come from the user, the platform, the available bandwidth, the end user's task. Early efforts on the screen medium included FlexClock, a multi-platform application that displays time and date according to 16 possible layouts that are computed at run-time depending on window dimensions. FCPres PlastiXML PlastiXML is a graphical user interface editor allowing to define multiple layouts depending on window dimensions. PXPres.
Wes2.jpg Wesley Willett
Assistant Professor, University of Calgary, Canada.
Wes's research focuses on tools and strategies to support social data analysis, with a particular emphasis on personal and community data. His interests include exploring physical interfaces and interactions that support comparison, reflection, and in-context analysis, as well as envisioning future tools for collecting and exploring data.