List of Physical Visualizations
and Related Artifacts

1992 – Tactile Infographics


In 1994 the American Printing House for the Blind publishes a short guidebook explaining how to convey infographics for the blind using tactile graphics (first and second images). Most of it is inspired by a 1992 book by Polly Edman.

Although it's not clear when were the first tactile infographics created, (non-thematic) tactile maps already existed in the 1910s (right image).


  1. APH (American Printing House for the Blind), Inc. (1994) Tactile Graphics Starter Kit.
  2. Polly Edman (1992) Tactile Graphics.
  3. First and second image from the Tactile Graphics Starter Kit.
  4. Right image: Library of Congress, Map of Europe, for Blind (thanks to Evan Tachovsky for digging this out).

Added by: Pierre Dragicevic. Category: Passive physical visualization  Tags: accessibility, blind, cartographic, tactile graphics